"Something must be done about this thing"
Which brings me back to one of my favourite hobby horses - David Cameron's irritating habit of saying 'we need to ...'followed by a statement of the obvious, as in 'we need to ensure that this doesn't happen again'.
He says it as though the mere statement is enough - the solution is something that others can handle. he thinks that by saying something is wrong, and saying it in an assertive way, often reinforcing the statement with a decisive chopping action with his hand, he'll come over as a man of action, someone who really can get things done.
Subsequently, driven by the understanding that he may be called upon to back his statement up with something more positive, he'll move on to your points 3 and 4. A minion will identify a course of action that might please the electorate and say ' here's a way out'. Cameron will adopt the idea and say, on the record 'we're going to act, and act decisively, we'll do this'.
Often 'this' will turn out to be a complete blind alley, and he'll say something along the lines of 'we thought it was better to take action, rather than allow the situation to continue. Now we'll modify our action to fit the changing circumstances. Our policy is working'.
In reality there was no policy. Weak political leaders don't govern by a predetermined set of policies, they react to circumstances on the ground. It can be a successful way to solve problems, but it isn't the way to steer a nation's course on a permanent basis.
Weak political leaders exist all over the world, because electorates and media have entered into a pact - the media will decide what the electorate thinks, and the electorate will provide the 'public opinion' reaction that pressures governments. Political leaders have become slaves to public opinion as expressed in the media, and they court it shamelessly.
Perhaps we're all too liberated these days, and a good old benevolent dictatorship might be the way to go.