It may be the case that it was the volume of updates that caused the failure. I would suggest that, even though it may take longer, you update with say 10 of the MS updates at a time; restart and run the PC for a while to check stability between each set. Prior to the next set you should create a Restore Point. You may also be wise to choose the 'Custom` option and avoid any 'Optional' updates until all those classed as 'Priority' are up and running.
This will, hopefully allow all the updates to be installed without problems, if not then at least you have narrowed the problem down considerably.