Unless you added version 10 retrospectively, you cannot actually uninstall or reinstall it. If it is an update, it can *usually* be found in your Add or Remove Programs pane when "show updates" is checked. If, however, it was original and you tried to remove it from Add/Remove Windows Components, that only removes access to the program, despite what it may appear to do.
1) Check your settings. Obvious, I know, but the settings that relate to media information are found on the Library, Privacy and Player tabs. You also seem to need to have the library feature enabled in the first place, even if you're just playing a CD.
2) System files: run sfc /scannow.