You can never truely surf anonymously! There is always a pathway from the serverto your computer in order to communicate and recieve/send data packets and as such, that pathway can always be traced. What proxy servers do is establish a link between one server and another before data reaches your computer, by doing that the end server only sees the ip of the proxy server. The proxy server sees both your ip and the end server's ip. Your isp logs will show the proxy servers ip but not the end servers ip, but, it can still be traced if investigated enough. What a proxy does, is to render your ip invisible to the end server. If you do want to surf as anonymously as is possible then torpark will route you through a multitude of computers. There is a downside to this in loss of speed. You could still be traced but it would take an extremely knowledgeble person to be able to do it. If you allowed your computer, in the torpark chain, to be used as a proxy you could then argue that any trace found to you was in fact someone else using you as a proxy!
" can these proxy servers identify your IP address as being in another country - the UK for example?"
The proxy servers will, as will your ISP log you as going through a proxy server. The destination web site will in MOST cases just see you as the proxy server location.
e.g. if you are in the Uk and pick a proxy from Japan you will be seen as surfing from Japan from that destination website. But a lot of major sites will have most proxy server IP addresses on their lists.
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