Facebook can be a source of amusement--and annoyance. Spam. Obnoxious faux-inspirational quotes. Ill-informed political opinions. Personalized ads that are totally irrelevant to you. Luckily for you, Facebook makes it easy to block posts that bug you and report them if necessary.
The method for blocking a post varies a little depending on where on Facebook you view it, but it's mostly a matter of wording.
To block a post that appears in your newsfeed, click the downward-pointing arrow in the upper right corner, then select I don't want to see this from the menu. Facebook will hide that post. If you don't want to have anything from a particular person or page appear on your newsfeed, select Hide All From instead.
When you hide a post, ask you if you want to hide all posts from that person or page, and provides some options to report a post to Facebook. Facebook provides the following options: "Its not relevant to me," "I keep seeing this," "Its offensive or inappropriate," and "It's spam." Select the appropriate option, and Facebook will take it from there. You can also undo your action, in case you blocked something by mistake or changed your mind.
If you wand to block something that you see on a profile or brand page, mouse over the post in question, click on the downward-pointing arrow, then select Report/Mark as Spam... from the menu. Facebook will then block the post in question and give you the option to unblock it (if you blocked it by mistake) or report it if abusive.