These days, most of your electronics have miniature computers built-in. Whether it's home-theatre systems, handheld devices and phones, or even any appliance that has a microprocessor, memory, and software. And just like computer software, firmware - the software that runs on your gadgets - needs periodic updating.

Believe it or not, many new gadgets aren't 100 percent complete when you buy them. Though a spiffy electronic toy may perform its basic functions, some of its promised features may be absent or incomplete. And to keep up with ever-changing kinds of content, your devices may require software enhancements to give old hardware new features.

To avoid antagonising customers who might spend hundreds of pounds on a cool piece of hardware only to find a few months later that it no longer worked, manufacturers design much of their gear to allow updates. You won't be able to get every feature of the latest and greatest product via downloadable updates, but firmware revisions can make your old equipment run faster and crash less often.

What is firmware?

Firmware is software stored in persistent memory - usually either flash memory or programmable, rewritable ROM (read-only memory) - that's built into the device. Unlike apps loaded into your PC's RAM, firmware doesn't get erased when you power the system down. Firmware may store just the basic software needed to start up the system - like a PC's BIOS - or it may store the entire operating system and applications suites, as with smartphones.

Why should I update?

Users often wonder why they should update their firmware. The real answer is "it depends". Many PC manufacturers and motherboard makers recommend that users not upgrade a system's BIOS, for example, unless an actual problem arises, such as memory compatibility issues, or unless the user is installing a new, unsupported CPU.

On the other hand, a Blu-ray player needs to be updated frequently, because new features on the content discs may render them unplayable on old firmware. So before you rush out to update your coffeemaker's firmware, check the manufacturer's recommendation first; otherwise, you might risk bricking your device (turning it into a useless assemblage of silicon and plastic) for nothing.

Of course, if you're running third-party firmware (as in the case of a 'jailbroken' iPhone), all bets are off. In this article we don't consider updates that break the manufacturer's warranty, so if you're installing custom, user-created firmware, you're well beyond the scope of this story.

Let's start with PCs and laptops, and then move on to other computing gear, handheld devices (including smartphones), and other consumer electronics.

NEXT PAGE: General rules

  1. From your HDTV to your smartphone, PC and more
  2. General rules
  3. Routers and peripherals
  4. Smartphones
  5. GPS units and digital cameras
  6. Firmware updates for your home theatre
  7. Games consoles