It's programming, installed as part of another software program that uses C++ language.
"The Microsoft Visual C++ 2010 SP1 Redistributable Package (x86) installs runtime components of Visual C++ Libraries required to run applications developed with Visual C++ 2010 SP1 on a computer that does not have Visual C++ 2010 SP1 installed." ClickHere
Apparently "If the software that you've installed on your machine needs them ... well, then you need them. If it doesn't, then you might not. But given that they only appear on your machine if software that uses them is present, I would expect that you probably do need them" ClickHere for explanation