Basically no. Sending a fax is a standard telephone call via your modem - just like sending a fax from a fax machine.
There are a number of services which allow you to "fax" over broadband - you email, then the service changes it to a fax for delivery. These are normally chargeable (but lower rates than long-distance faxes, and in some cases flat rates, which is good if you need to send lots of faxes), but have some free trials.
google for free faxing